Deploying a Java Tomcat Application via Chef

06 Mar 2014


We will write a simple REST application and deploy it to a server using Chef by writing a cookbook and deploying via knife solo.

This will seem like a lot of work to deploy an application, but makes more sense if you are setting up a more distributed application. For example, we could have 3 web servers running this application on Tomcat, with another server setup to load balance using nginx, using redis as a distributed cache, and postgres as the database, across two servers setup with replication.

Creating the project

Let’s first create a dummy application to upload. This assumes you have Maven installed. I was using Maven 3.1.1 with Apple Java 1.6.0_65. The source for the jax-rs project is on Github.

mvn archetype:generate

You’ll be presented with a list of options, which you may filter. Input jaxrs and press enter to filter by that term. Enter the number corresponding to the archetype org.apache.cxf.archetype:cxf-jaxrs-service. Enter options for the groupId, artifactId, and version, and accept the defaults. I entered the following values:


The Route and Controller

This will generate a controller or service bean called HelloWorld. is presented below, for reference.

public class HelloWorld {
  public String ping(
    @PathParam("input") String input
    ) {
    return input;
  // ...

For our purposes, all we really need to know from this file is that there will be a route at the application context that looks like /hello/echo/***, where, for GET requests, whatever is entered for the asterisks will be echoed back. The annotations are specific to JAX-RS and explaining them is not in the scope of this article.

Running the app

We can confirm our belief by running the web application. Although you could build the war and deploy it to an application server, we’ll take a simpler approach using the maven-tomcat7 plugin.

mvn tomcat7:run

Running the command above will run our application in its own instance of Tomcat. After running the command, you’ll see several logging statements including something that looks like:

[INFO] Running war on http://localhost:13000/jaxrs-service

That will tell you the port and context of the application.

Sanity Check

Once the application is started, we can test the endpoint via curl.

curl -v localhost:13000/jaxrs-service/hello/echo/test

# * About to connect() to localhost port 13000 (#0)
# *   Trying ::1...
# * connected
# * Connected to localhost (::1) port 13000 (#0)
# > GET /jaxrs-service/hello/echo/test HTTP/1.1
# > User-Agent: curl/7.24.0 (x86_64-apple-darwin12.0) libcurl/7.24.0 OpenSSL/0.9.8y zlib/1.2.5
# > Host: localhost:13000
# > Accept: */*
# > 
# < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
# < Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1
# < Date: Sat, 01 Mar 2014 19:52:57 GMT
# < Content-Type: text/plain
# < Content-Length: 4
# < 
# { [data not shown]
# * Connection #0 to host localhost left intact
# test* Closing connection #0

We can see in the last line that “test” was echoed, since it was entered after the echo/ in the URL.

Starting the Cookbook

These next steps assume that you have setup your system for Chef. The final cookbook we develop below is available on Github

First, create a new cookbook template using Berkshelf. Assuming we have have Ruby installed (I am using ruby 2.0.0p247), we can grab this dependency by running the command gem install berkshelf. This will install the berks command, which provides an easy way to create a cookbook.

berks cookbook jaxrs_tutorial

cd into the cookbook directory and run bundle install to install the gems specified in the Gemfile.

Go into the metadata.rb file and specify that your cookbook depends on java and application_java.

depends 'java'
depends 'application_java', '~> 3.0.0'

We will use a custom version of the application_java cookbook that I forked from the main version. Let’s modify the Berksfile to point at this version. The Berksfile should look something like this:

site :opscode

cookbook 'apt'
cookbook 'application_java', 
  git: ''


Now, we’ll edit default recipe in recipes/default.rb. We’ll make use of the java_webapp and tomcat LWRPs that the application_java cookbook provides.

case node['platform']
when 'debian', 'ubuntu'
  include_recipe 'apt'
  package 'curl' # here for tests. Don't do this!
include_recipe 'java' # Need described below

application 'jaxrs_tutorial' do 
  path '/var/www/jaxrs_tutorial'
  repository 'http://nexus/jaxrs_tutorial-1.0.0.war'
  revision '1.0.0'
  scm_provider Chef::Provider::RemoteFile::Deploy

  # Handles war specifics and creates the `context.xml`
  tomcat # Symlinks the context.xml into $CATALINA_HOME

How it works

The recipe above will create the application at the path /var/www/jaxrs_tutorial with directories:

  • current
  • shared
  • releases

Then, it will download the war from the URI given to the repository method (this can be the path to the war in your Nexus) to the releases directory to releases/1.0.0, and symlink the war to current. Finally, it will install Tomcat (and Java) if they’re not installed, then create a context.xml file at $CATALINA_HOME/conf/Catalina/jaxrs_tutorial.xml.

There are a few special notes about this recipe.

Firstly, we must have allowed Chef to install Java for this recipe to work (at least on CentOS). If we didn’t we will probably get a message about keytool not being found. This is because the default Java package does not add the keytool tool inside $JAVA_HOME/bin to the $PATH. However, if one uses Chef to manage it, keytool will be added the $PATH using the alternatives command. There is another way to get around this error, by specifying the keytool path in attribute node['tomcat']['keytool']. It’s not actually necessary to specify in the recipe itself. Instead, you could specify java before this cookbook in the run list of the role or node you are operating on.

Secondly, note that the java_webapp LWRP may accept a block to configure database parameters and to provide a custom context.xml template.

Thirdly, note the package 'curl' call in the first block. This is around purely for tests, which will be described later, and installs the curl command. When creating real cookbooks, you should create cookbooks just for testing purposes, and add these to the run list in your .kitchen.yml file, described later.

Lastly, we include the apt recipe if we’re working on ubuntu so that the apt repository gets updated. Otherwise, java installation might fail.

Making Things Configurable

Since we want some of the settings to be configurable, we’ll swap them out with cookbook attributes. Let’s create a file attributes/default.rb that looks like the following:

default[:jaxrs_tutorial][:application_name] = 
default[:jaxrs_tutorial][:application_path] = 
default[:jaxrs_tutorial][:application_version] = 
default[:jaxrs_tutorial][:war_uri] = 

And the new recipes/default.rb using these attributes looks like:

case node['platform']
when 'debian', 'ubuntu'
  include_recipe 'apt'
  package 'curl' # here for tests. Don't do this!

include_recipe 'java'

application node[:jaxrs_tutorial][:application_name] do 
  path node[:jaxrs_tutorial][:application_path]
  repository node[:jaxrs_tutorial][:war_uri]
  revision node[:jaxrs_tutorial][:application_version]
  scm_provider Chef::Provider::RemoteFile::Deploy


Testing the Cookbook

Now that we’re done with the cookbook, it’d be helpful to test it. We can use test-kitchen to do so. It was installed when you ran bundle install earlier. test-kitchen allows us to integration test our cookbook by spinning up a virtual machine. Using the default setup, it’ll use Vagrant to spin up the machine.

The Chef run is configured via the .kitchen.yml file that was created by Berkshelf. Let’s modify the file to change some of the attribute settings for the default suite. These are attributes we will test for later.

  - name: default
      - recipe[jaxrs_tutorial::default]
        application_name: 'jaxrs_tutorial'
        application_path: '/var/www/jaxrs_tutorial_test'
        war_uri: ''

For the war uri, you can specify a nexus URI. Alternatively, you could run a web server on your host machine (which is reachable on the guest via I ran the following command in my java project target directory to do that:

python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8999

If you have a web server installed locally, you may just want to drop the war there.

Let’s kick off the Chef run now by running the command below:

bundle exec kitchen converge centos

This will spin up a CentOS box for testing, and run our Chef recipe on it. test-kitchen will spin up the machine, but we need to write a test. Although there are many tests we could perform, let’s perform two tests directly relevant to what we’re doing above.

Writing the Tests

Let’s check that the application path exists, and we’ll hit the /echo endpoint and make sure that whatever we give it is echoed back. We’ll write the test using the Bats Bash testing framework. Here’s the test:

# test/integration/default/bats/app_running.bats
@test "app folder exists" {
  ls /var/www/jaxrs_tutorial_test

@test "app is running" {
  curl $URI | grep -i 'hello_world'

We also need to add the busser-bats gem to our Gemfile. The Gemfile should look something like this now:

source ''

gem 'berkshelf'
gem 'test-kitchen'
gem 'kitchen-vagrant'
gem 'busser-bats'

And make sure the gems are installed by running bundle install again. Now, we can have the test run on the node we provisioned via the command:

bundle exec kitchen verify centos

If we’re confident that everything works, we can perform a full test on both CentOS and Ubuntu at the same time using the command:

bundle exec kitchen test --parallel


Now that we have an application WAR and a corresponding Chef cookbook, we can deploy the application via Chef Server, Hosted Chef, or Chef Solo. I will briefly go over how to deploy using Chef Solo.

First, we want to install the knife-solo gem. Then, in an empty directory, run the command below to generate a kitchen directory structure.

knife solo init .

Modify the created Berksfile to reference the cookbook we just created.

Next, let’s say we have ssh access to a node whose hostname is example.local. Let’s also assume we’ve setup key-based authentication with that node. We can issue the following command to install Chef on the node:

knife solo prepare [email protected]

We’ll be asked to enter our sudo password. Once the preparation is done, we can issue the following command to start the Chef run. We’ll have to enter our sudo password each time we run this command.

knife solo cook [email protected]

This will create a file nodes/example.local.json. Now, in the run_list array in that file, we can add a reference to our cookbook. We must also specify the WAR URI, as it is the only required attribute of the cookbook.

  "run_list": [
  "jaxrs_tutorial": {
    "war_uri": ""

Finally, running cook again will run Chef on the node and run the cookbook.

knife solo cook [email protected]


We did a lot of things above! We created an application, a Chef cookbook with a test, and deployed the application via Chef Solo. There are many things I glossed over and did not explain, since this is such a big topic area. If you have any questions on the process or notice a problem, feel free to reach out to me on twitter!